English Language Arts Foundation: 2 - Early Reading

Topic: ELA2.2 - Demonstrate phological awareness

Phonological awareness is a broad skill that includes the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate phonemes in spoken words. The most difficult of these and last to develop is called phonemic awareness. This skill lets kids focus on individual sounds (phonemes) in a word. It allows children to separate a word into the sounds that make it up, as well as blend single sounds into words. Finally, it also incorporates the ability to add, remove or substitute new sounds in words. Children who demonstrate phonological awareness are able to identify and make oral rhymes, clap out the number of syllables in a word, and recognize initial sounds.

Looking Ahead to Kindergarten Family Engagement Special Populations
In kindergarten, students will be able to identify and produce rhyming words (K.RF.3.2). Additionally, students will orally pronounce blend and segment words into syllables (K.RF.3.2), blend the onset and rime (K.RF.3.3). Lastly, students will identify similarities and differences in words when spoken or written (K.RF.4.5). Encourage families to:

*Read books that are rich in rhyming words.
*Play a rhyming game (e.g. “What words sound alike . . . cat, bat or cat, pop?”).
*Clap out syllables of their child’s name (Han-nah = clap, clap), as well as other familiar names and objects.
*Use “robot talk” for blending syllables. Say, “Ap - ple” with pauses at each syllable. Ask child what word was said in robot talk.
*Use “robot talk” for blending Consonant-Vowel-Consonant (CVC) words. Say “/d/ - /o/ - /g/”. Ask child what word they heard in robot talk.

Educators can:

*Provide children with visuals and manipulatives of letters when asking them to segment or blend words, identify onset or rime, or identifying when words rhyme. (e.g. Show the child the letter C, followed by a picture of a cat).

Powerful Practices
Across all developmental stages, educators can:

*Break words down into syllables (e.g. “ba-by”).
*Be aware of onset and rimes (e.g. “Dog starts with d. What other words start that sound duh-duh? Do any of our friends’ names start with that sound?”, Spoken rhyme recognition - “Do these words rhyme: dish – fish?” , “Which word does not rhyme: dish – dog -- fish?” , “What is a word that rhymes with dish?”
*Segment and blend sounds (e.g. “Sky: /s/ /k/ /y/” or Replace/sk/ with /b/ to create the word “by”).
*Use alliteration (e.g. ball, boy, bat, by, baby) to help children identify the onset or beginning sounds of words.
*Focus on beginning sounds (e.g. “What is the beginning sound you hear in pencil?” “/p/”).

Infant

Frequently talk to infant, describe surroundings and experiences throughout the day

Explain environmental sounds to infant (e.g. “Oh! That was loud. The door slammed shut.”)

Consistently provide infant with board or cloth books (that can be cleaned and mouthed) with a variety of real pictures and textures

Speak to infant using a simplified, sing-song form of language characterized by repetition, simple sentence structure, and expressive voice

Younger Toddler
Acknowledge when sounds are similar or different (e.g. loud vs. quiet noises, animal sounds)

Read books and sing songs that repeat sounds and encourage child to join in

Consistently provide child with board or cloth books (that can be cleaned and mouthed) with a variety of real pictures and textures

Older Toddler
Acknowledge and encourage participation in sound play (e.g. rhyming games and creating nonsense words)

Read books and sing songs that repeat sounds and encourage child to actively participate (e.g. pause periodically for child to complete familiar phrases)

Provide child with books that have interesting language, rhythm, and sounds

Younger Preschool
Expose child to letter sounds in the environment (e.g. songs, fingerplays, interest area labels)

Model sound play to help child begin to discriminate sounds

Offer opportunities for child to engage in reading books, singing songs and doing finger plays that repeat sounds, have rhymes and manipulate sounds (e.g. I Like to Eat Apples and Bananas)

Older Preschool
When reading to a child, call attention to letters and the sounds they make

Encourage participation in sound discrimination

Offer opportunities for child to engage in reading books, singing songs and doing finger plays that repeat sounds, have rhymes and manipulate sounds (e.g. encourage child to create silly songs and listen to and experiment with nonsense words)