Phonological awareness is a broad skill that includes the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate phonemes in spoken words. The most difficult of these and last to develop is called phonemic awareness. This skill lets kids focus on individual sounds (phonemes) in a word. It allows children to separate a word into the sounds that make it up, as well as blend single sounds into words. Finally, it also incorporates the ability to add, remove or substitute new sounds in words. Children who demonstrate phonological awareness are able to identify and make oral rhymes, clap out the number of syllables in a word, and recognize initial sounds.
|Looking Ahead to Kindergarten||Family Engagement||Special Populations|
|In kindergarten, students will be able to identify and produce rhyming words (K.RF.3.2). Additionally, students will orally pronounce blend and segment words into syllables (K.RF.3.2), blend the onset and rime (K.RF.3.3). Lastly, students will identify similarities and differences in words when spoken or written (K.RF.4.5).||Encourage families to:
*Read books that are rich in rhyming words.
*Provide children with visuals and manipulatives of letters when asking them to segment or blend words, identify onset or rime, or identifying when words rhyme. (e.g. Show the child the letter C, followed by a picture of a cat).
| Across all developmental stages, educators can:
*Break words down into syllables (e.g. “ba-by”).
Frequently talk to infant, describe surroundings and experiences throughout the day
Explain environmental sounds to infant (e.g. “Oh! That was loud. The door slammed shut.”)
Consistently provide infant with board or cloth books (that can be cleaned and mouthed) with a variety of real pictures and textures
Speak to infant using a simplified, sing-song form of language characterized by repetition, simple sentence structure, and expressive voice
|Acknowledge when sounds are similar or different (e.g. loud vs. quiet noises, animal sounds)
Read books and sing songs that repeat sounds and encourage child to join in
Consistently provide child with board or cloth books (that can be cleaned and mouthed) with a variety of real pictures and textures
|Acknowledge and encourage participation in sound play (e.g. rhyming games and creating nonsense words)
Read books and sing songs that repeat sounds and encourage child to actively participate (e.g. pause periodically for child to complete familiar phrases)
Provide child with books that have interesting language, rhythm, and sounds
|Expose child to letter sounds in the environment (e.g. songs, fingerplays, interest area labels)
Model sound play to help child begin to discriminate sounds
Offer opportunities for child to engage in reading books, singing songs and doing finger plays that repeat sounds, have rhymes and manipulate sounds (e.g. I Like to Eat Apples and Bananas)
|When reading to a child, call attention to letters and the sounds they make
Encourage participation in sound discrimination
Offer opportunities for child to engage in reading books, singing songs and doing finger plays that repeat sounds, have rhymes and manipulate sounds (e.g. encourage child to create silly songs and listen to and experiment with nonsense words)