# Mathematics Foundation: 1 - Numeracy

#### Topic: M1.1 - Demonstrate strong sense of counting

Numeracy/number sense refers to a general understanding of number information that enables a person to have a sense of what numbers mean, understand their relationship to one another, being able to perform mental math, understanding symbolic representation, and use numbers in real world situations.

Counting is a foundational skill needed to develop numeracy and leads to the ability to:
*Understand 1:1 correspondence
*Understand concepts of cardinality
*Develop algebraic thinking

Looking Ahead to Kindergarten Family Engagement Special Populations
In kindergarten, students will count to at least 100 by ones and tens, and count one by one from any number (K.NS.1). Additionally, students will be able to say the number names in standard order and understand the last number named is the number of objects regardless of the arrangement (K.NS.4). Lastly, students will be able to recognize sets of 1 to 10 objects in a pattern arrangement and tell how many without counting (K.NS.6). Encourage families to:

*Play games and sing songs that include counting, estimating, understanding patterns, and number recognition.
*Have children estimate how many are in a particular group of objects then count them together (e.g. counting individual socks while doing laundry then counting the pairs of socks).
*Count steps to a certain location.
*Use cooking, baking, and meal time as opportunities to talk about numbers (e.g. have the child set the table, counting and placing the items).

Educators can:

*Work with families to identify what is being done at home and match or expand on familiar practices and skills.
*Use movement with counting (e.g. pointing to objects or groups of objects).
*For DLL, use one-on-one interventions focused on matching number words in the home language to English.

Powerful Practices
Across all developmental stages, educators can:

*Make counting materials available, including books with counting stories.
*Describe their own actions using math and counting in daily routines.
*Use parallel talk or sports cast by describing child’s actions using math and counting.
*Offer opportunities to organize objects.
*Integrate planned and spontaneous counting opportunities into the daily program, walks or field trips.
*Share fingerplays and songs used throughout the day with families.
*Avoid practices and activities that emphasize rote memorization or counting to three as a disciplinary strategy.

Infant

Introduce songs, rhymes, and fingerplays with a predictable beat and number sense (e.g. 1,2 Buckle My Shoe)

Demonstrate clapping and beat-counting activities for children (e.g. If You’re Happy and You Know It)

Younger Toddler
Model counting within routines (e.g. counting crackers at snack, counting children during transitions, and counting down before cleaning up)

Offer objects for play that are easy to manipulate, line up, and organize (e.g. socks, large counters, blocks, cars, and animals)

Engage in books and songs that involve counting and numbers

Use counting and number sense during play (e.g. “You have two eyes, and so does your bear. Let’s count: one, two.”)

Older Toddler
Encourage child to count along with you when distributing objects (e.g. “One, two, three! We set out three plates for our friends!”)

Offer objects and opportunities for children to count independently using 1:1 correspondence (e.g. snack helper places one cup at each plate or educator asks child, “Could you please bring me three blocks?”)

Younger Preschool
Provide opportunities for children to count the number sequence 1-15 (e.g. count aloud and have children count along the number of children present in environment during transition periods)

Encourage children to count when creating sets and distributing objects

Facilitate games and activities that involve creating small sets up to five
(e.g. role play restaurant and have children draw a picture of the number of plates needed)

Older Preschool
Provide opportunities for children to count the number sequence 1-20 (e.g. count aloud and have children count along the number of children present in environment during transition periods)

Encourage children to count when creating sets and distributing objects

Facilitate games and activities that involve creating small sets up to 10 (e.g. children roll a die and count out number of manipulatives)

Provide opportunities where children can work together to write a counting song