# Mathematics Foundation: 1 - Numeracy

#### Topic: M1.3 - Recognition of number relations

Number relations is the understanding of the relationships that exist among numbers.

The development of number relations skills leads to:
*Counting skills
*Understanding of cardinality
*Comprehension of written numerals
*Understanding of quantities
*Comparison skills
*Understanding of sequence

Looking Ahead to Kindergarten Family Engagement Special Populations
Kindergarten students will separate sets of ten or fewer objects into equal groups (K.NS.10). Additionally, they will identify whether the number of objects in one group is greater than, less than, or equal to the number of objects in another group (K.NS.7). Students will also use words for comparison including: one and many; none, some, all; more and less; most and least; and equal to, more than and less than (K.NS.9). Lastly, students will be able to compare the values of two numbers from 1 to 20 presented as written numerals (K.NS.8). Encourage families to:

*Take a walk allowing their child to explore various opportunities to compare different objects they see (e.g. “Which stone is bigger?” or “Did we find more acorns or walnuts?”).
*Count stairs or steps on the way to a specific place (e.g. “Are there more steps here or at our house?”).
*Use meal time as an opportunity to talk about number relations (e.g. “I have six carrots and you have four. Who has more carrots?”).

Educators can:

*Provide at least 30- 60 seconds for a child to consider a question. Then, ask the child if they would like to think or talk with a friend to find an answer.
*Pair children (potentially who speak the same language) to allow teamwork, using color coding to aid in grouping, and integrating other subjects.

Powerful Practices
Across all developmental stages, educators can:

*Use descriptive language such as before and after to describe sequences of events or objects.
*Create opportunities for children to group items and compare the groups’ quantities.
*Integrate math language such as “one,” “many,” “some,” “none,” “all,” “more,” “less”, “most,” and “equal” across all ages and environments in daily conversations and interactions.
*Share ideas from the program with families to extend the learning beyond the program hours (e.g. if the program drew outlines of the children’s bodies, and lined them up shortest to tallest - encourage families to talk about who is the tallest in their family).

Infant

Model asking for more and identify when more is provided (e.g. “Do you want more milk?” “I can give you more milk.”)

Incorporate simple hand gestures to signify concepts of more

Provide opportunities to explore objects one at a time

Encourage and respond to requests for more

Younger Toddler
Provide opportunities and materials to explore the concept of a group being separated into parts (e.g. breaking crackers into two pieces)

Use mathematical language across environments and activities throughout the day (e.g. “Please bring me all of the crayons”, “You have more/less crackers than Isaiah”, or “Whose tower has more blocks?”)

Older Toddler
Provide activities where children can identify differences in quantity (e.g. sensory table, dramatic play grocery store, and blocks)

Use mathematical language across environments and activities throughout the day (e.g. “You ate the rest of your snack.” “Some of the pieces are missing.”)

Help children identify first and last (e.g. use picture schedules, identify first and last peer in a line)

Sing songs with numbers, discussing “none” as representing zero (e.g. Five Little Speckled Frogs)

Younger Preschool
Count various quantities together with children, and compare which group has more, fewer or the same (e.g. memory card game with sets of 1-5 dots or pictures)

Encourage children to use mathematical language to describe their environment (e.g. when playing store, ask the child to describe what items they have most/more/fewer in their basket)

Discuss what equal amounts are and demonstrate what this looks like (e.g. when passing out supplies)

Older Preschool
Count various quantities together with children, and compare which group has more, fewer or the same (e.g. memory card game with sets of 1-10 dots or pictures)

Encourage children to use mathematical language to describe their environment (e.g. when lining up, ask children to describe positional order, “Who is first, second, third and last?”)

Provide opportunities for children to equally divide items/foods into small groups (e.g. sort three crackers into each bowl)