Write all uppercase (capital) and lowercase letters legibly, and space letters, words, and sentences appropriately.

Learning Outcome:

Write routinely over brief time frames and for a variety of purposes and audiences.

I Can Statements Question Stems
-I can write uppercase and lowercase letters legibly.
-I can put spaces between words so my writing is easy to read.

-Are your letters written legibly?
-Are your words in the sentence spaced appropriately?
-Can your writing be read easily?

Academic Vocabulary

lowercase letter
uppercase (capital) letter

Practical Examples, Standards, and Digital Resources

Reading Examples Writing Examples Speaking and Listening Examples
-Display visual models of correct letter formation and spacing. -Give students ample practice time for letter formation within words and sentences.

-Play “Sentence Doctor.” The teacher writes a sentence either with no spaces, with spaces that are too large, or with inconsistent spaces. Have students take turns playing the role of "Sentence Doctor" to fix the sentence mistakes.

-Use verbal pathways for teaching letter formation.

-Have students watch and interact with letter formation songs.

Reading Standards Writing Standards Speaking and Listening Standards
1.RF.2.4 1.W.3
Digital Resources

- Letter Formation Chart

-Smekens Verbal Pathways for Letter Formation

-Montgomery School Letter Formation

-Jack Hartmann Lowercase Letter Song

-Jack Hartmann Uppercase Letter Song

English Learner Considerations

The English Learner considerations, which were written by Indiana EL teachers, are meant to increase engagement and support growth for ELs.They are designed to support the standards and curriculum you are currently using. The following are recommendations of best practices to assist educators in making language more accessible for English Learners. Educators should adapt strategies based upon a student’s proficiency level and ensure that content is age-appropriate.

Additional strategies and the guiding principles regarding literacy instruction for English Learners.

Beginning Intermediate Advanced

-utilize think-write-pair-share activities
-utilize drawing
-model writing process with I do, we do, you do
-provide grammatical sentence structure support

-utilize think-write-pair-share activities
-help students write sounds in words for group writing
-utilize drawing and labeling
-model writing process with I do, we do, you do
-provide grammatical sentence structure support

-model writing process with I do, we do, you do

Special Education Considerations

The special education considerations, which were written by Indiana special education teachers, are meant to increase engagement and support growth for students in special education. This is not an exhaustive list of strategies, but these supports will help you make literacy instruction more accessible for students. Remember to adapt these to the needs of your students and ensure that you are creating opportunities for all students to engage with rigorous content.

Guiding principles regarding literacy instruction for students in special education.

Strategy  Examples

Recognize developmental stages of writing

Allow drawings and inventive spelling for beginning of kindergarten

Encourage students to explore writing by copying texts

Provide mini-word walls for access to sight words without needing to copy from the wall

Trace letters to learn proper letter formation

Use handwriting paper with raised guides

Trace letter in sand or shaving cream

Build the letters with Play-Doh

Use magnetic letters to spell a sight word, then copy the word

Model writing (for example, in a morning message), move to shared writing, then begin independent journaling (gradual release model)

Teacher writes in highlighter, and student traces over letters

Students uses speech-to-text option

Students fill in the blank in teacher created sentences.

Utilize gradual release model to teach steps of writing process

Model a prewrite web

“Share the Pen” on a first draft

Provide specific feedback to students’ work