**Guiding Principles of Mathematics Instruction:**

- Mathematical proficiency is defined by conceptual understanding, procedural fluency, strategic competence, adaptive reasoning, and productive disposition (National Research Council, 2001).
- Mathematical proficiency drives independent thinking, reasoning, and problem-solving.
- Mathematical proficiency is the foundation for careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), and it is increasingly becoming the foundation for careers outside of STEM (NCTM, 2018)
- Effective mathematics teaching “engages students in meaningful learning through individual and collaborative experiences that promote their ability to make sense of mathematical ideas and reason mathematically” (NCTM, 2014).
- Standards-based instruction accelerates student gains.
- Students construct mathematical knowledge through exploration, discussion, and reflection.
- Teachers are facilitators of student learning, as they engage students in rich tasks. Administrators are change agents and have the power to create and to support a culture of mathematical proficiency.

Standard | Grade | Area/Subject | Description |
---|---|---|---|

2.G.2 |
2 |
Geometry and Measurement |
Create squares, rectangles, triangles, cubes, and right rectangular prisms using appropriate materials. |

2.G.3 |
2 |
Geometry and Measurement |
Investigate and predict the result of composing and decomposing two- and three-dimensional shapes. |

2.G.4 |
2 |
Geometry and Measurement |
Partition a rectangle into rows and columns of same-size (unit) squares and count to find the total number of same-size squares. |

2.G.5 |
2 |
Geometry and Measurement |
Partition circles and rectangles into two, three, or four equal parts; describe the shares using the words halves, thirds, half of, a third of, etc.; and describe the whole as two halves, three thirds, four fourths. Recognize that equal parts of identical wholes need not have the same shape. |

2.M.1 |
2 |
Geometry and Measurement |
Describe the relationships among inch, foot, and yard. Describe the relationship between centimeter and meter. |

2.M.2 |
2 |
Geometry and Measurement |
Estimate and measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools, such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes to the nearest inch, foot, yard, centimeter and meter. |

2.M.3 |
2 |
Geometry and Measurement |
Understand that the length of an object does not change regardless of the units used. Measure the length of an object twice using length units of different lengths for the two measurements. Describe how the two measurements relate to the size of the unit chosen. |

2.M.4 |
2 |
Geometry and Measurement |
Estimate and measure volume (capacity) using cups and pints. |

2.M.5 |
2 |
Geometry and Measurement |
Tell and write time to the nearest five minutes from analog clocks, using a.m. and p.m. Solve real-world problems involving addition and subtraction of time intervals on the hour or half hour. |

2.M.6 |
2 |
Geometry and Measurement |
Describe relationships of time, including: seconds in a minute; minutes in an hour; hours in a day; days in a week; and days, weeks, and months in a year. |

2.M.7 |
2 |
Geometry and Measurement |
Find the value of a collection of pennies, nickels, dimes, quarters and dollars. |

2.NS.1 |
2 |
Number Sense |
Count by ones, twos, fives, tens, and hundreds up to at least 1,000 from any given number. |

2.NS.2 |
2 |
Number Sense |
Read and write whole numbers up to 1,000. Use words, models, standard form and expanded form to represent and show equivalent forms of whole numbers up to 1,000. |

2.NS.3 |
2 |
Number Sense |
Plot and compare whole numbers up to 1,000 on a number line. |

2.NS.4 |
2 |
Number Sense |
Match the ordinal numbers first, second, third, etc., with an ordered set up to 30 items. |