**Guiding Principles of Science Instruction:**

- Science instruction should be three-dimensional, implementing the science and engineering process standards and applying the cross cutting concepts to deepen understanding of core ideas. (NSTA, 2019)
- Science instruction should foster independent thinking, reasoning, and problem-solving.
- Standards-based instruction accelerates student gains.
- Students construct scientific knowledge through exploration, discussion, and reflection.
- Teachers are facilitators of student learning, as they engage students in rich tasks. Administrators are change agents and have the power to create and to support a culture of scientific inquiry.

Standard | Grade | Area/Subject | Description |
---|---|---|---|

PI.7.4 |
High School |
Physical Science | Describe the slope of the graphical representation of wavelength vs. the inverse of the frequency in terms of the speed of the mechanical wave. |

PI.7.5 |
High School |
Physical Science | Apply the mechanical wave model to sound waves and qualitatively and quantitatively determine how the relative motion of a source and observer affects the frequency of a wave as described by the Doppler Effect. |

PI.7.6 |
High School |
Physical Science | Qualitatively and quantitatively apply the principle of superposition to describe the interaction of two mechanical waves or pulses. |

PI.7.7 |
High School |
Physical Science | Qualitatively describe the phenomena of both resonance frequencies and beat frequencies that arise from the interference of sound waves of slightly different frequency and define the beat frequency as the difference between the frequencies of two individual sound wave sources. |

PI.8.1 |
High School |
Physical Science | Develop graphical, mathematical, and pictorial representations that describe the relationship between length, cross-sectional area, and resistivity of an ohmic device and apply those representations to qualitatively and quantitatively describe how changing the composition, size, or shape of the device affect the resistance. |

PI.8.2 |
High School |
Physical Science | Describe the slope of the graphical representation of resistance vs. the ratio of length to cross-sectional area in terms of the resistivity of the material. |

PI.8.3 |
High School |
Physical Science | Develop graphical and mathematical representations that describe the relationship between the amount of current passing through an ohmic device and the amount of voltage (i.e. EMF) applied across the device according to Ohm’s Law and apply those representations to qualitatively and quantitatively describe how changing the current affects the voltage and vice versa. |

PI.8.4 |
High School |
Physical Science | Describe the slope of the graphical representation of current vs. voltage or voltage vs. current in terms of the resistance of the device. |

PI.8.5 |
High School |
Physical Science | Qualitatively and quantitatively describe how changing the voltage or resistance of a simple series (i.e. loop) circuit affects the voltage, current, and power measurements of individual resistive devices and for the entire circuit. |

PI.8.6 |
High School |
Physical Science | Qualitatively and quantitatively describe how changing the voltage or resistance of a simple parallel (i.e. ladder) circuit affects the voltage, current, and power measurements of individual resistive devices and for the entire circuit. |

PI.8.7 |
High School |
Physical Science | Apply conservation of energy concepts to the design of an experiment that will demonstrate the validity of Kirchhoff’s loop rule (∑ΔV = 0) in a circuit with only a battery and resistors either in series or in, at most, one pair of parallel branches. |

PI.8.8 |
High School |
Physical Science | Apply conservation of electric charge (i.e. Kirchhoff’s junction rule) to the comparison of electric current in various segments of an electrical circuit with a single battery and resistors in series and in, at most, one parallel branch and predict how those values would change if configurations of the circuit are changed. |

PI.8.9 |
High School |
Physical Science | Use a description or schematic diagram of an electrical circuit to calculate unknown values of current, voltage, or resistance in various components or branches of the circuit according to Ohm’s Law, Kirchhoff’s junction rule, and Kirchhoff’s loop rule. |

PII.1.1 |
High School |
Physical Science | For a system consisting of a single object with a net external force applied, qualitatively and quantitatively predict changes in its linear momentum using the impulse-momentum theorem and in its translational kinetic energy using the work-energy theorem. |

PII.1.2 |
High School |
Physical Science | For a system consisting of a two objects with no net external forces applied, qualitatively and quantitatively analyze a two dimensional interaction (i.e. collision or separation) to show that the total linear momentum of the system remains constant. |