**Guiding Principles of Science Instruction:**

- Science instruction should be three-dimensional, implementing the science and engineering process standards and applying the cross cutting concepts to deepen understanding of core ideas. (NSTA, 2019)
- Science instruction should foster independent thinking, reasoning, and problem-solving.
- Standards-based instruction accelerates student gains.
- Students construct scientific knowledge through exploration, discussion, and reflection.
- Teachers are facilitators of student learning, as they engage students in rich tasks. Administrators are change agents and have the power to create and to support a culture of scientific inquiry.

Standard | Grade | Area/Subject | Description |
---|---|---|---|

PII.3.3 |
High School |
Physical Science | Develop and apply the principle of constant volume flow rate to determine the relationship between cross-sectional area of a pipe and the velocity of an incompressible fluid flowing through a pipe. |

PII.3.4 |
High School |
Physical Science | Develop and apply Bernoulli’s principle and continuity equations to predict changes in the speed and pressure of a moving incompressible fluid. |

PII.3.5 |
High School |
Physical Science | Describe how a change in the pressure of as static fluid in an enclosed container is transmitted equally in all directions (Pascal’s Principle) and apply Pascal’s Principle to determine the mechanical advantage of a hydraulic system. |

PII.4.1 |
High School |
Physical Science | Describe the methods of charging an object (i.e. contact, induction, and polarization) and apply the principle of conservation of charge to determine the charges on each object after charge is transferred between two objects by contact. |

PII.4.2 |
High School |
Physical Science | For a single isolated charge, develop and apply graphical and mathematical representations that describe the relationship between the amount of charge, the distance from the charge and the strength of the electric field created by the charge and apply those representations to qualitatively and quantitatively describe how changing either the amount of charge or distance from the charge affects the strength of the electric field. |

PII.4.3 |
High School |
Physical Science | Using Coulomb's law, pictorially and mathematically describe the force on a stationary charge due to other stationary charges. Understand that these forces are equal and opposite as described by Newton’s third law and compare and contrast the strength of this force to the force due to gravity. |

PII.4.4 |
High School |
Physical Science | For a single isolated charge, develop graphical and mathematical representations that describe the relationship between the amount of charge, the distance from the charge and the electric potential created by the charge and apply those representations to qualitatively and quantitatively describe how changing either the amount of charge or distance from the charge affects the electric potential. |

PII.4.5 |
High School |
Physical Science | Map electric fields and equipotential lines, showing the electric field lines are perpendicular to the equipotential lines, and draw conclusions about the motion of a charged particle either between or along equipotential lines due the electric field. |

PII.4.6 |
High School |
Physical Science | Distinguish between electric potential energy and electric potential (i.e. voltage). |

PII.4.7 |
High School |
Physical Science | Apply conservation of energy to determine changes in the electric potential energy, translational kinetic energy, and speed of a single charged object (i.e. a point particle) placed in a uniform electric field. |

PII.5.1 |
High School |
Physical Science | Relate the idea of electric potential energy to electric potential (i.e. voltage) in the context of electric circuits. |

PII.5.2 |
High School |
Physical Science | Develop graphical and mathematical representations that describe the relationship between the between the amount of current passing through an ohmic device and the amount of voltage (i.e. EMF) applied across the device according to Ohm’s Law. Apply those representations to qualitatively and quantitatively describe how changing the current affects the voltage and vice versa for an ohmic device of known resistance. |

PII.5.3 |
High School |
Physical Science | Describe the slope of the graphical representation of current vs. voltage or voltage vs. current in terms of the resistance of the device. |

PII.5.4 |
High School |
Physical Science | Define and describe a device as ohmic or non-ohmic based on the relationship between the current passing through the device and the voltage across the device based on the shape of the curve of a current vs. voltage or voltage vs. current graphical representation. |

PII.5.5 |
High School |
Physical Science | Explain and analyze simple arrangements of electrical components in series and parallel DC circuits in terms of current, resistance, voltage and power. Use Ohm’s and Kirchhoff’s laws to analyze DC circuits. |