**Guiding Principles of Science Instruction:**

- Science instruction should be three-dimensional, implementing the science and engineering process standards and applying the cross cutting concepts to deepen understanding of core ideas. (NSTA, 2019)
- Science instruction should foster independent thinking, reasoning, and problem-solving.
- Standards-based instruction accelerates student gains.
- Students construct scientific knowledge through exploration, discussion, and reflection.
- Teachers are facilitators of student learning, as they engage students in rich tasks. Administrators are change agents and have the power to create and to support a culture of scientific inquiry.

Standard | Grade | Area/Subject | Description |
---|---|---|---|

PII.6.1 |
High School |
Physical Science | Describe the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic, paramagnetic, and diamagnetic materials on a macroscopic scale and atomic scale. |

PII.6.2 |
High School |
Physical Science | Develop and apply a mathematical representation that describes the relationship between the magnetic field created by a long straight wire carrying an electric current, the magnitude of the current, and the distance to the wire. |

PII.6.3 |
High School |
Physical Science | Describe the motion of a charged or uncharged particle through a uniform magnetic field. |

PII.6.4 |
High School |
Physical Science | Determine the magnitude of the magnetic force acting on a charged particle moving through a uniform magnetic field and apply the right hand rule to determine the direction of either the magnetic force or the magnetic field. |

PII.6.5 |
High School |
Physical Science | Describe the practical uses of magnetism in motors, electronic devices, mass spectroscopy, MRIs, and other applications. |

PII.7.1 |
High School |
Physical Science | Given the magnitude and direction of a uniform magnetic field, calculate the flux through a specified area in terms of the field magnitude and the size and orientation of the area with respect to the field. |

PII.7.2 |
High School |
Physical Science | Develop graphical and mathematical representations that describe the relationship between the rate of change of magnetic flux and the amount of voltage induced in a simple loop circuit according to Faraday’s Law of Induction and apply those representations to qualitatively and quantitatively describe how changing the voltage across the device affects the current through the device. |

PII.7.3 |
High School |
Physical Science | Apply Ohm’s Law, Faraday’s Law, and Lenz’s Law to determine the amount and direction of current induced by a changing magnetic flux in a loop of wire or simple loop circuit. |

PII.8.1 |
High School |
Physical Science | Develop graphical, mathematical, and pictorial representations (e.g. ray diagrams) that describe the relationships between the focal length, the image distance and the object distance for planar, converging, and diverging mirrors and apply those representations to qualitatively and quantitatively describe how changing the object distance affects the image distance. |

PII.8.2 |
High School |
Physical Science | Develop graphical, mathematical, and pictorial representations (e.g. ray diagrams) that describe the relationship between the angles of incidence and refraction of monochromatic light passed between two different media and apply those representations to qualitatively and quantitatively describe how changing the angle of incidence affects the angle of refraction. |

PII.8.3 |
High School |
Physical Science | Develop graphical, mathematical, and pictorial representations (e.g. ray diagrams) that describe the relationships between the focal length, the image distance, and the object distance for both converging and diverging lenses and apply those representations to qualitatively and quantitatively describe how changing the object distance affects the image distance. |

PII.8.4 |
High School |
Physical Science | Describe an image as real or virtual for both a curved mirror and lens system based on the position of the image relative to the optical device. |

PII.9.1 |
High School |
Physical Science | Develop the relationship among frequency, wavelength, and energy for electromagnetic waves across the entire spectrum. |

PII.9.2 |
High School |
Physical Science | Explain how electromagnetic waves interact with matter both as particles (i.e. photons) and as waves and be able to apply the most appropriate model to any particular scenario. |

PII.9.3 |
High School |
Physical Science | Develop graphical and mathematical representations that describe the relationship between the frequency of a photon and the kinetic energy of an electron emitted through the photoelectric effect and apply those representations to qualitatively and quantitatively describe how changing the frequency or intensity of light affect the current produced in the photoelectric effect. |