This Teacher Resource Guide has been developed to provide supporting materials to help educators successfully implement the Indiana Academic Standards for Science. These resources are provided to help you in your work to ensure all students meet the rigorous learning expectations set by the Academic Standards. Use of these resources is optional – teachers should decide which resource will work best in their school for their students.
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|Indiana Science: Anatomy & Physiology Standards||Resources (digital simulations, lessons, labs, etc.)|
|AP.1.1 Investigate the forms of cellular transport within and across cell membranes. Explain how passive and active transport move materials through the body and into/out of cells. Describe the how simple diffusion differs from facilitated diffusion. Describe how vesicular transport moves materials within a cell.|
|AP.1.2 Develop a model which describes the stages of somatic cell division (mitosis), how it contributes to maintaining homeostasis, and why cellular differentiation is vital to development.||Cells Alive
Onion Root Tips
Scratch Coding Mitosis
|AP.1.3 Explore the homeostatic range to sustaining human life, the principal mechanism involved, and predict the consequences of what happens when homeostasis is not maintained.|
|AP.1.4 Introduce the basic step and control mechanisms of protein synthesis.||Protein Synthesis Race|
|AP.1.5 Explore the vital ways that proteins contribute to the structure, metabolism, and defense of the body, as well as, the importance of shape to their function.||Protein Structure|
|AP.2.1 Analyze how each hierarchical level of life contributes to complexity of anatomy and physiological functions (e.g. cells, tissues, etc.). Investigate the relationships among various tissue types as well as the molecular and cellular composition of these tissues.|
|AP.2.2 Investigate and be able to describe the histological structural and functional characteristics of the four basic tissue types.||Tissue Quizlet|
|AP.2.3 Identify the body cavities, their membranes, and the organs within each cavity. Investigate the major organ systems and describe their basic functional importance.|
|AP.2.4 Identify anatomical terms (including body direction, regions, planes) on a diagram, model, or through dissection.||Health Pages|
|AP.3.1 Analyze the structural characteristics and functional importance of the integumentary system to maintaining homeostasis of the body.|
|AP.3.2 Investigate the injuries, diseases, and causes associated with the integumentary system and evaluate the consequences.||Live Science|
|AP.4.1 Develop a model to illustrate the structure, development, growth, and function of compact and spongy bone.||CK-12 Structure of Bone|
|AP.4.2 Evaluate the general macroscopic characteristics of a typical long bone, then locate and identify individual bones and bone features.||Anatomy Explorer|
|AP.4.3 Identify and describe the structure of the major types of joints and how these structural components influence functional mobility and stability.|
|AP.5.1 Compare and contrast the structural and functional similarities and differences between skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle.|
|AP.5.2 Investigate the molecular components of skeletal muscle fiber and how they function to bring about contraction and relaxation.||Edumedia|
|AP.5.3 Explain the molecular processes involved in the sliding filament model and biochemical mechanisms that provide energy for muscle contraction and relaxation.||Big Picture|
|AP.5.4 Describe how a neuromuscular junction functions and investigate how motor units influence the force and velocity of muscle contraction.|
|AP.5.5 Identify the major muscles on a diagram, model, or through dissection.||Anatomy Explorer
|AP.5.6 Distinguish between isotonic and isometric contractions of skeletal muscle. Examine muscular hypertrophy and atrophy and discuss causes of these processes.|
|AP.6.1 Develop a model that illustrates the structural components and functional subdivisions of the nervous system.||Nervous System
|AP.6.2 Describe and diagram the structures of the various types of neurons, their supporting neuroglial cells, and investigate their basic functions.||Nerve Cells CK-12|
|AP.6.3 Compare and contrast the actions, origins, and pathways of nerve fibers in the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system and their associated neurotransmitters.|
|AP.6.4 Identify and model how action potentials are generated, the ions and channel protein involved, and the basic structural and functional aspects which allow for synaptic connection.||Action Potential|
|AP.7.1 Distinguish between somatic senses and special senses, the prominent sensory receptor types, and their functional operation.|
|AP.7.2 Explore the anatomy of the eye, it's functional layers, the fovea and its function. Investigate how the eye accommodates for near and distance vision as well as how the eye adapts to changes in light.|
|AP.7.3 Investigate the structural components and function of the ear, and model how equilibrium and sound are detected through the ear.||Interactive Ear|
|AP.8.1 Investigate the structure and function of the endocrine system and develop models showing how changes in prominent hormone levels impact homeostasis throughout the body systems.|
|AP.8.2 Discuss the structural and functional
differences between an endocrine gland and an exocrine gland.
|AP.8.3 Distinguish between amino acid, peptide, and lipid based hormones and describe how they differ in bringing about changes in cellular activity.|
|AP.8.4 Investigate the hormones of the hypothalamus-pituitary complex, the function of these hormones in controlling the thyroid, gonads, and adrenal cortex; and the feedback signals that control them. Evaluate how the HP complex, the sympathetic nervous system, and the adrenal medulla are influenced by stress.|
|AP.8.5 Investigate the endocrine and exocrine functions of the pancreas and its involvement in digestion and blood sugar regulation.||Pancreas and Diabetes
Blood sugar regulation
|AP.9.1 Analyze and model the functions of blood which are fundamental to maintaining homeostasis; including hemostasis; nutrient, gas, and waste exchange; and inflammatory response.|
|AP.9.2 Evaluate the composition and functions of whole blood, plasma, and the regulation and production of blood cells.|
|AP.9.3 Investigate the ABO blood types, antigens and antibodies, and their significance in blood transfusion.|
AP.10.1 Investigate the primary structures of the cardiovascular system and explore their functional importance to maintaining homeostasis.
|AP.10.2 Investigate the stages, control, and regulation of the cardiac cycle.||
|AP.10.3 Compare and contrast the structural and functional difference between the different blood vessel types. Model what vasoconstriction and vasodilation are and how they impact homeostasis.|
|AP.10.4 Use a diagram and/or a model to illustrate the external and internal structures and layers of the heart, the vessels entering and leaving the heart, and the one-way blood flow through the heart.|
|AP.10.5 Discuss the regulation of blood pressure. Analyze the effect of abnormal blood pressure on long term health.||Blood Pressure Simulation|
|AP.10.6 Investigate how the cardiovascular system and other body systems respond to changes in blood volume as well as changes in physical activity which allow the body to maintain homeostasis.|
|AP.11.1 Identify the primary structural components of the lymphatic system and their functions. Analyze the relationship with activities of bone marrow, thymus gland, and overall importance in maintaining homeostasis.||Lymphatic System|
|AP.11.2 Investigate the difference between innate and acquired immunity. Examine how cellular and non-cellular components work collectively to defend the body against foreign pathogens and how they contribute to maintaining homeostasis.|
|AP.12.1 Identify and locate major and accessory organs of the digestive system and investigate their physiological functions.|
|AP.12.2 Investigate the enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract and accessory organs in relation to the processing, digesting, and absorbing of the three major biomolecules.|
|AP.12.3 Explain the difference between metabolic and respiratory acidosis and alkalosis.|
|AP.13.1 Identify and locate major organs of the respiratory system and discuss their functions.|
|AP13.2 Investigate the anatomical structures and physiological processes involved in inspiration & expiration.|
|AP.13.3 Investigate how percentages and partial pressure gradients of oxygen and carbon dioxide impact net gas exchange.|
|AP.13.4 Describe how the body monitors changes in blood pH and carbon dioxide using specialized receptors and how the respiratory system adjusts in order to maintain homeostasis.|
|AP.14.1 Identify and locate major organs of the urinary system and discuss their functions.|
|AP.14.2 Understand the function of the kidneys in relation to homeostatic control of bodily fluids, blood pressure, and erythrocyte production.|
|AP.14.3 Develop a model of the nephron which explores its structural components and the functional processes of filtration, secretion, and reabsorption, which are essential to maintaining homeostasis.|
|AP.14.4 Explain the neural basis of micturition including the function of the sphincters
associated with the male and female urethra.
|AP.14.5 Investigate how the kidneys respond to excess water intake and to dehydration, as well as the role of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and sodium in the regulation of water absorption and excretion.|
|AP.15.1 Identify and locate major and accessory organs of the female and male reproductive systems and discuss their functions.|
|AP.15.2 Discuss the role of hormones in the reproductive system.|
|AP.15.3 Create a model showing how fluctuating hormonal changes associated with the reproductive system impact both the uterine and ovarian cycles.|
|AP.15.4 Describe how spermatozoa move through the female reproductive tract and describe the process of fertilization.|
|AP.15.5 Investigate and develop a model of early development which traces the changes of a fertilized cell (zygote) through the blastocyst level of development and the then gastrulation process resulting in the rise of the three primary germ layers.|
- Patterns. Observed patterns of forms and events guide organization and classification, and they prompt questions about relationships and the factors that influence them.
- Cause and effect: Mechanism and explanation. Events have causes, sometimes simple, sometimes multifaceted. A major activity of science is investigating and explaining causal relationships and the mechanisms by which they are mediated. Such mechanisms can then be tested across given contexts and used to predict and explain events in new contexts.
- Scale, proportion, and quantity. In considering phenomena, it is critical to recognize what is relevant at different measures of size, time, and energy and to recognize how changes in scale, proportion, or quantity affect a system’s structure or performance.
- Systems and system models. Defining the system under study—specifying its boundaries and making explicit a model of that system—provides tools for understanding and testing ideas that are applicable throughout science and engineering.
- Energy and matter: Flows, cycles, and conservation. Tracking fluxes of energy and matter into, out of, and within systems helps one understand the systems’ possibilities and limitations.
- Structure and function. The way in which an object or living thing is shaped and its substructure determine many of its properties and functions.
- Stability and change. For natural and built systems alike, conditions of stability and determinants of rates of change or evolution of a system are critical elements of study.